Waveguide Frequencies and Geometries

Courtesy of Pasternack : Waveguide Frequencies and Geometries

Loss, whether due to radiation leakage or conduction resonance, is a common problem in RF microwave transmission lines, especially when high-powered frequency transmissions are involved. The solution? Waveguides.

Waveguide Basics

A waveguide is an electromagnetic feed line used for high frequency microwave signals in high-power transmitters and receivers and is used in radar equipment, in microwave ovens, in satellite dishes or in any RF microwave system where high-power transmission is needed. Waveguides are hollow metallic tubes or light carbon fiber composites constructed with high grade metals like copper, brass, or plated metals. Silver or other plating is used on the inside walls of a waveguide which acts to decrease the resistance loss by shielding and provides efficient isolation between adjacent signals. Transmission lines like microstrip, stripline, or coaxial cable may also be considered to be waveguides and they are usually referred to as dielectric waveguides with a solid center core. However, on high-powered microwave waveguides where the line may get too hot, air in the cavity may be pressurized, recirculated, or a Freon-like gas is used to keep the waveguide cool and also can prevent arcing.

While the disadvantages of using a waveguide include a high production cost, large size and mass of the guide, and the inability of running a DC current alongside the RF signal, the advantages in using a waveguide are that they are completely shielded, high-powered transmission lines that provide good isolation and very low loss that can bend without compromising performance.

Frequencies and Geometries

For the signal to propagate, waveguides need a minimum cross section relative to the wavelength of the signal; these cross sections can be either rectangular, circular, or elliptical. The dimensions of a waveguide determine the wavelengths it can support and in which modes. The lowest frequency range a waveguide will operate is where the cross section is large enough to fit one complete wavelength of the signal. In hollow waveguides, or waveguides using a single conductor, transverse-electromagnetic (TEM) mode of transmission waves are not possible, since Maxwell’s Equations demonstrates that an electric field must have zero divergence and zero curl and be equal to zero at boundaries, resulting in a zero field.

Comparatively, for two-conductor lower frequency transmission lines, like microstrip, stripline, or coaxial cable, TEM mode is possible. In rectangular and circular waveguides, the dominant modes are designated the TE10 mode and TE11 modes.

According to Maxwell’s equations, there are three rules that apply to waveguides:

1 )Electromagnetic waves are reflected by conductors,

2 )Electric field lines that make contact with a conductor must be perpendicular to it,

3 )Magnetic field lines close to a conductor must be parallel to it.

These rules allow for certain modes of propagation such that the TE10 (transverse electric) mode is the mode in which energy propagates in rectangular waveguide. The mode with the lowest cutoff frequency is noted as the dominant mode of the guide.

Because waveguides are the transmission lines for super high frequency (SHF) systems, they must operate with only one mode propagating through the waveguide. Waveguide propagation modes depend on the operating wavelength, polarization, shape, and size of the guide.  Waveguides standards are based on rectangular waveguides and are designed with these characteristics:

one band starts where another band ends, with a band overlapping the two bands in order to allow for applications near band edges,

> the lower edge of the band is approximately 30% higher than a waveguide cutoff frequency thus limiting dispersion and loss per unit length,

>In order to avoid evanescent-wave coupling by way of higher order modes, the upper edge of the band is approximately 5% lower than the cutoff frequency of the next higher order mode,

>the waveguide height is half the waveguide width which allows a 2:1 operation bandwidth – having the height exactly half the width maximizes the power inside the waveguide.

For convenience, our waveguide calculator provides the cutoff frequency, operating frequency range and closest waveguide size for a rectangular waveguide.

Variations on the Waveguide

>The double-ridge rectangular waveguide is a type of waveguide used in RF microwave systems. The ridges in this waveguide design serve to increase the bandwidth but, on the downside, creates higher attenuation and lower power-handling capability.

>The single ridge waveguide is similar to the rectangular waveguide but noted for its large capacitive loading centered on its broad wall.  Compared to a rectangular waveguide, the single ridge waveguide has a lower cut-off frequency with a smaller cross section. However, when compared with the double ridge waveguide, the single ridge yields increased loss and reduced power handling capabilities.

>The slotted waveguide, generally used for radar and similar applications, serves as a feed path with each slot acting as a separate radiator. This antenna structure can generate an electromagnetic wave transmission in a specified narrow and targeted direction.

u‑blox M8 GNSS

LynQ’s network-free location tracker featuring u‑blox M8 GNSS receiver goes into pre-sale

Courtesy of u-blox : LynQ’s network-free location tracker featuring u‑blox M8 GNSS receiver goes into pre-sale

The easy‑to‑use device helps groups stick together indoors, outdoors, anywhere.  

Thalwil, Switzerland – September 20, 2018 – u‑blox (SIX:UBXN), a global provider of leading positioning and wireless communication technologies, announced their collaboration with USA‑based LynQ on a tracking device that lets groups of users locate each other. LynQ, which surpassed its fundraising target on the Indiegogo crowdfunding platform, raising over US$ 1.5million, is now on pre‑sale. Featured in the device is the u‑blox CAM‑M8Q GNSS receiver. It is a GPS/GLONASS/BeiDou positioning module with an embedded antenna. With its slim size of 9.6 x 14 x 1.95 mm, it is easy to integrate it into handheld devices.

LynQ’s crowdfunding success shows the extent to which the company’s founders uncovered an unmet demand on the market. While smartphone‑based solutions to locate friends and family, for instance in a crowd, abound, they are limited by the availability of mobile network reception. The location tracker developed by LynQ gets by without cellphones, networks, apps, or monthly fees. By simply syncing up the devices before heading out, group members can find each other within an up to five‑mile radius and link up again.

The first generation of the weather‑proof tracker uses long‑range, low power radio frequencies to connect devices. Up to 12 people can join a group, split up, and use the only button on the clip‑on device to toggle through the group members and find out in which direction and how far away each one is. LynQ’s location tracker helps friends regroup outdoors or at crowded events, parents keep an eye on their children, and caregivers watch over the safety of people with special needs, elderly family members, or loved ones suffering from diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

Dependability is central to the LynQ’s location tracker, which has been field‑tested on numerous continents and in most topographies and use cases. “We found the u‑blox CAM‑M8Q to be the best solution for us to achieve the requirements our use cases demand,” says Drew Lauter, Chief Operating Officer at LynQ. “We’re extremely price sensitive, yet we need a highly dependable GPS module. u‑blox worked closely with us to deliver that.”

For u‑blox, accompanying LynQ in the development of its product has been an exciting adventure, says Suresh Ram, President of u‑blox America. “We’re thrilled to see how well their idea has been received by the public and look forward to our continued collaboration in the future.”

To learn more, watch the video.

About u‑blox
u‑blox (SIX:UBXN) is a global provider of leading positioning and wireless communication technologies for the automotive, industrial, and consumer markets. Their solutions let people, vehicles, and machines determine their precise position and communicate wirelessly over cellular and short range networks. With a broad portfolio of chips, modules, and a growing ecosystem of product supporting data services, u‑blox is uniquely positioned to empower its customers to develop innovative solutions for the Internet of Things, quickly and cost‑effectively. With headquarters in Thalwil, Switzerland, the company is globally present with offices in Europe, Asia, and the USA.

Find us on FacebookGoogle+LinkedIn, Twitter @ublox and YouTube

u‑blox contact:
Natacha Seitz
PR Manager
Tel +41 44 722 73 88

About LynQ
Founded in October of 2014, Lynq is an alumnus of HAX, the world’s first and largest hardware startup accelerator based in Brooklyn, New York.

For more information, please visit lynqme.com or contact media@lynqme.com.

LynQ contact:
Drew Lauter
Chief Operating Officer

FXUB64.18.0150A Antenna by Taoglas

FXUB64.18.0150A Antenna by Taoglas

Courtesy of everything RF : FXUB64.18.0150A Antenna by Taoglas

The FXUB64.18.0150C from Taoglas is a flexible ultrawideband antenna that operates from 600 to 3000 MHz, covering all Cellular, 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi, ISM, NB-IoT, CAT-M1 and AGPS, including LTE Band 71 that will be used for NB-IoT in the U.S. It has a peak gain of 6 dBi, an efficiency of more than 50% across the bands and is designed to be mounted directly onto a plastic or glass cover. The ultra-thin polymer antenna measuring 130 x 30 x 0.2 mm, is delivered with a flexible peel-and-stick body, ground independent, with cable and connector for easy installation.

Product Details

    • Part Number : FXUB64.18.0150A
    • Manufacturer : Taoglas
    • Description : LTE Wide Band Flexible Antenna from 600 to 3000 MHz

General Parameters

    • Type : Flexible, PCB
    • Directionality : Omni-Directional
    • Polarization : Linear
    • Frequency : 0.6 to 3 GHz
    • Cable : 1.13 mm mini coax
    • Gain : -3.3 to -1.5 (Avg), 2.3 to 6 dBi
    • Power : 5 W
    • Industry : Cellular / Wireless Infrastructure
    • Mounting : Adhesive Mount, PCB Mount
    • Impedance : 50 Ohms
    • Connectors : U.FL
    • Multi Band : Yes
    • Cable Length : 150 mm
    • Dimension : 130 x 30 x 0.2 mm
    • Weight : 2.4 g
    • Operating Temperature : -40 to 85 Degrees C
    • Storage Temperature : -40 to 85 Degrees C
Qorvo QPC3025

QPC3025 RF Switch by Qorvo

Courtesy of everything RF : QPC3025 RF Switch

The QPC3025 is a Silicon on Insulator, reflective SPDT switch that operates from 30 to 4200 MHz. It offers low insertion loss in a symmetric topology with excellent linearity. The switch can handle upto 20 W CW and 30 W pulsed power with a 50 Ohm load. The switch is available in a RoHS-compliant, compact 5 x 5 mm surface-mount leadless package and is designed for use in 4G / 5G wireless infrastructure applications and other high performance communications systems.

Product Details

    • Part Number : QPC3025
    • Manufacturer : Qorvo
    • Description : SOI SPDT Reflective Switch from 0.03 to 4.2 GHz

General Parameters

    • Type : Solid State
    • Configuration : SPDT
    • Termination : Reflective
    • Application : 4G, 5G
    • Application Industry : Wireless Infrastructure, Wireless / Communication
    • Frequency : 30 MHz to 4.2 GHz
    • Insertion Loss : 0.35 to 0.41 dB
    • Isolation : 29 to 46 dB
    • Power : 43 dBm(CW), 44.77 dBm(Pulsed)
    • Power : 20 W ( CW), 30 W(Pulsed)
    • Supply Voltage : 2.7 to 5.5 V
    • Control Voltage : 0 to 0.63 (Low), 1.17 to 5.59 (High)
    • Switching Speed : 4.7 to 5.8 us
    • Control : CMOS
    • Impedance : 50 Ohms
    • Package Type : Surface Mount
    • Package : 32 Pin Leadless
    • Dimension : 5 mm x 5 mm
    • Operating Temperature : -40 to 85 Degrees C
    • Storage Temperature : -50 to 150 Degrees C
    • RoHS : Yes

Taoglas Introduces the World’s Smallest NB-IoT Antenna

Courtesy of everything RF : Taoglas Introduces the World’s Smallest NB-IoT Antenna

Taoglas has launched three NB-IoT antennas, including the smallest ceramic NB-IoT antenna (NCP.5820) that covers Bands 5, 8 and 20 simultaneously with a single matching configuration, and an ultra-thin, flexible multiband antenna (FXUB64) that supports all LTE bands – including the new Band 71 that will be used for NB-IoT in the U.S.

The antennas are specifically designed to provide device manufacturers cost-effective global reach and high efficiency in a small form factor as they develop NB-IoT solutions. Taoglas showcased the Extensis NB-IoT antennas at the Mobile World Congress Americas last week.

The low-profile, highly efficient NCP.5820 is a NB-IoT ceramic surface mount multiband antenna that supports Bands 8 (880-960 MHz) and 20 (791-862 MHz), as well as Band 5 (824-894 MHz) to allow IoT devices – such as asset trackers – to work across different regions and different carriers. Its low profile (2 mm) and small footprint (14.1 x 8.3 mm) make it the smallest NB-IoT antenna.

The NCP.5820 is designed with the patent-pending Taoglas Boost technology, which delivers up to a 2 dB improvement in antenna performance when integrated into small devices. Taoglas Boost is particularly suited to designs with shorter ground planes, allowing IoT and other device designers to bring to market a wider range of smaller devices that would otherwise not have been able to meet certain stringent carrier certification requirements.

The NCS.5820, is a surface-mount onboard antenna that supports Bands 5, 8 and 20. Its low-profile (1.6 mm) and small footprint (11 x 20 mm) allows the NCS.5820 to be integrated into even the smallest of IoT devices. As it is a larger antenna, it demonstrates higher efficiency, and Taoglas Boost is also available with this antenna, and any Taoglas onboard antenna.

The third antenna in the Extensis range is the patent-pending FXUB64 flexible ultrawideband antenna, which has been designed for all working frequencies in the 600 to 3000 MHz spectrum, covering all Cellular, 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi, ISM and AGPS, including LTE Band 71. The ultra-thin (130 x 20 x 30*0.2 mm) polymer antenna is delivered with a flexible peel-and-stick body with excellent efficiencies on all bands. Taoglas is the world’s first to include LTE Band 71 in an off-the-shelf cellular antenna product. The antenna is compliant to T-Mobile’s new 600 MHz over-the-air (OTA) requirements when properly integrated into the customer’s device.

Service providers around the world are rolling out NB-IoT network upgrades to support the growing demand to connect IoT devices to support a variety of applications, ranging from bicycle tracking and parking in urban environments to water management to smart metering in remote locations. NB-IoT delivers a wealth of benefits to end users, including low-date-rate transmission, low-power to extend battery life, extended coverage in challenging environments, proven LTE-based security mechanisms, and the ability to support a massive number of connections.

Taoglas supports these benefits by providing highly efficient, low-cost, easy to integrate, reliable antennas in a very small form factor that are suitable across a range of NB-IoT and LPWA (LoRa, Sigfox and ISM) devices and applications.

Bluetooth Low Energy tire pressure monitoring system provides drivers with ‘real time’ continuous feedback to help avoid potential safety issues

Courtesy of Nordic Semiconductor : Bluetooth Low Energy tire pressure monitoring system

The ‘70mai Tire Pressure Monitoring System’ from 70mai employs Nordic’s nRF51 Series SoC to provide wireless connectivity between the in-car console and the user’s smartphone

Nordic Semiconductor today announces that 70mai, a Shanghai, China-based developer of intelligent car solutions and subsidiary of smartphone giant Xiaomi, has selected Nordic’s Bluetooth® Low Energy (Bluetooth LE) nRF51 Series System-on-Chip (SoC) to provide the Bluetooth LE wireless connectivity for its ’70mai Tire Pressure Monitoring System’. The system provides low latency continuous feedback on a vehicle’s tire pressure, allowing the user to take corrective action in the event of abnormal pressure to avoid potential safety issues.

In operation a pressure sensor is fitted to the tire valve stem on each wheel. The sensor employs a 433MHz wireless transmitter to continuously relay tire pressure data to the dashboard-mounted pressure monitoring console. The console displays the current pressure in each tire, while an alarm alerts the driver in the event tire pressure data is outside the user-specified parameters. The console incorporates Nordic’s nRF51 Series SoC, which provides Bluetooth LE wireless connectivity between the device and the user’s Bluetooth 4.0 (and later) smartphone or tablet. In addition to supervising the wireless connectivity, the Nordic SoC’s Arm® Cortex™ M0 CPU operates as the console’s microcontroller, providing the computing power for all the unit’s functionality. The console is powered by a lithium battery, providing a replacement lifetime of between three and five years.

Once paired, tire pressure data is synced to the user’s mobile, and from the company’s iOS- and Android-compatible ’70mai’ app, the driver can review tire pressure status as well as set alarm parameters. Tire pressure data can also be uploaded to the Cloud from the mobile. The system is also compatible with the company’s ’70mai Smart Rear-view Mirror’, a smart mirror that can be fitted over a car’s existing rearview mirror, providing an eye-level display with navigation functionality, as well as a range of safety warning features including tire pressure from the 70mai Tire Pressure Monitoring System.

Nordic’s nRF51 Series is a family of flexible multiprotocol SoCs ideally suited for Bluetooth LE and 2.4GHz proprietary ultra low power wireless applications. The nRF51 Series SoCs are built around the 32-bit Arm CPU, 2.4GHz multiprotocol radio, 256kB/128kB Flash, and 32kB/16kB RAM. The SoCs are supplied with Nordic’s S130 SoftDevice, a Bluetooth 4.2 qualified concurrent multilink RF protocol software supporting simultaneous Central/Peripheral/Broadcaster/Observer role connections. Nordic’s software architecture includes a clear separation between the RF protocol software and the application code, simplifying development and ensuring the SoftDevice doesn’t become corrupted when developing, compiling, testing, and verifying application code.

“We selected the nRF51 Series SoC for its performance, price, and also because of the Nordic SoftDevice. The software architecture made application development much simpler,” says Hugh Zhu, 70mai Hardware Director.

“Also Nordic’s technical information is very rich, and excellent technical support is available both from Nordic and its distributors. This has been of great help in ensuring the smooth progress of this project,” says Dana Lv, 70mai Tire Pressure Monitoring System product line leader.

Picture Gallery


Qorvo® Introduces IoT SiP to Improve Smart Home Solutions

Courtesy of Qorvo : IoT SiP to Improve Smart Home Solutions


GREENSBORO, NC, – September 14, 2018 – Qorvo® (NASDAQ: QRVO), a leading provider of innovative RF solutions that connect the world, today introduced a new System in Package (SiP) that enables dynamic, simultaneous support for Zigbee® 3.0, Green Power, Thread and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). This new SiP integrates Qorvo power amplifier technology providing 20 dBm output, which is especially important for U.S. smart home applications.

The Qorvo QPG6095M is a fully integrated SiP for ultra-low power wireless communications. It is BLE 5.0 and Zigbee 3.0 platform and product certified, and offers Green Power energy efficiency. This SiP also extends range and battery life, and enables robust interference mitigation. The QPG6095M delivers optimized connectivity throughout the home, eliminating the need for complex mesh architectures and unnecessary battery consumption in intermediate devices.

The QPG6095M blends Qorvo’s power amplifier (PA) technology with a multi-standard, multi-protocol chip. Its level of integration and performance benefit product designers by lowering development costs and speeding time to market.

Cees Links, general manager of Qorvo’s Wireless Connectivity business unit, said, “This new SiP is another example of Qorvo’s commitment to combining and leveraging RF technologies to improve the consumer’s connected experience. Developers can now deliver BLE, Zigbee and Thread simultaneously with more range and reliability, and reduce concerns about future compatibility.”

Qorvo’s Wireless Connectivity business is a leading developer of wireless semiconductor system solutions for connected devices and Wi-Fi integrated front-end solutions. Qorvo offers a broad range of advanced RF chips and software for smart home data communications and the IoT.

Information about Qorvo IoT solutions is available at: www.qorvo.com/applications/internet-of-things. Qorvo’s free e-book, Internet of Things for Dummies®, can be accessed here.

To learn more about Qorvo’s Smart Home and IoT solutions visit the Qorvo booth at IBC 2018 (#IBC2018) in Amsterdam (Hall 1, booth A50) on Sept. 14-18.

About Qorvo

Qorvo (NASDAQ:QRVO) makes a better world possible by providing innovative RF solutions at the center of connectivity. We combine product and technology leadership, systems-level expertise and global manufacturing scale to quickly solve our customers’ most complex technical challenges. Qorvo serves diverse high-growth segments of large global markets, including advanced wireless devices, wired and wireless networks and defense radar and communications. We also leverage our unique competitive strengths to advance 5G networks, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and other emerging applications that expand the global framework interconnecting people, places and things. Visit http://www.qorvo.com to learn how Qorvo connects the world.

Qorvo is a registered trademark of Qorvo, Inc. in the U.S. and in other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Investor Relations Contact:
Doug DeLieto
VP, Investor Relations
Media Contact Wireless Connectivity:
Vanessa Gaté

This press release includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about our plans, objectives, representations and contentions and are not historical facts and typically are identified by use of terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue” and similar words, although some forward-looking statements are expressed differently. You should be aware that the forward-looking statements included herein represent management’s current judgment and expectations, but our actual results, events and performance could differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements. We do not intend to update any of these forward-looking statements or publicly announce the results of any revisions to these forward-looking statements, other than as is required under the federal securities laws. Qorvo’s business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including variability in operating results, the inability of certain of our customers or suppliers to access their traditional sources of credit, our industry’s rapidly changing technology, our dependence on a few large customers for a substantial portion of our revenue, our ability to implement innovative technologies, our ability to bring new products to market and achieve design wins, the efficient and successful operation of our wafer fabrication facilities, assembly facilities and test and tape and reel facilities, our ability to adjust production capacity in a timely fashion in response to changes in demand for our products, variability in manufacturing yields, industry overcapacity and current macroeconomic conditions, inaccurate product forecasts and corresponding inventory and manufacturing costs, dependence on third parties and our ability to manage channel partners and customer relationships, our dependence on international sales and operations, our ability to attract and retain skilled personnel and develop leaders, the possibility that future acquisitions may dilute our shareholders’ ownership and cause us to incur debt and assume contingent liabilities, fluctuations in the price of our common stock, additional claims of infringement on our intellectual property portfolio, lawsuits and claims relating to our products, security breaches and other similar disruptions compromising our information and exposing us to liability, the impact of stringent environmental regulations, and the impact of integrating the businesses of RFMD and TriQuint. These and other risks and uncertainties, which are described in more detail in Qorvo’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other reports and statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, could cause actual results and developments to be materially different from those expressed or implied by any of these forward-looking statements.

Taoglas FXUB64

Taoglas FXUB64 New Extensis Range of NB-IoT Antennas

Courtesy of Taoglas : FXUB64 New Extensis Range of NB-IoT Antennas

FXUB64.18.0150A LTE Wide Band Flex Antenna 600MHz–3000MHz

  • 600-3000 MHz Wide Band Antenna
  • LTE Band 71 Support
  • >45% Efficiency on All bands & 6 dBi Peak Gain
  • Flexible “Peel and Stick” PCB Antenna
  • 130*30*0.2 mm size
  • Connector: Hirose (U. FL Compatible)
  • Cable: 150mm 1.13mm coax
  • RoHS Compliant

The Taoglas patent pending FXUB64.18.0150C flexible wideband antenna has been designed to cover all working frequencies in the 600-3000 MHz spectrum, covering all Cellular, 2.4GHz Wi-Fi, ISM, NB-IoT, CAT-M1 and AGPS, including LTE band 71. The antenna is delivered with a flexible body with excellent efficiencies on all bands, ground independent, with cable and connector for easy installation.

The FXUB64 flexible polymer antenna, at 130*30*0.2mm, is ultra-thin and truly wideband with high efficiencies across the bands. It is assembled by a simple “peel and stick” process, attaching securely to non-metal surfaces via 3M adhesive. It enables designers to use only one antenna that covers all common LTE frequencies.

The FXUB64 antenna is a durable flexible polymer antenna that has a peak gain of 6 dBi, an efficiency of more than 50% across the bands and is designed to be mounted directly onto a plastic or glass cover. It is an ideal choice for any device maker that needs to keep manufacturing costs down over the lifetime of a product. It is ground plane independent and delivered with a cable and connector for easy connecting to the wireless module or customer PCB.

Cables and Connectors are customizable. Like all such antennas, care should be taken to mount the antenna at least 10mm from metal components or surfaces, and ideally 20mm for best radiation efficiency.

Antenna Arrays

An Array of Antenna Arrays

Courtesy of Pasternack : An Array of Antenna Arrays

An antenna array, or phased array, is a set of two or more antennas whose signals are combined in order to improve performance over that of a single antenna. An antenna array is used to increase overall gain, provide diversity reception, cancel out interference, maneuver the array in a particular direction, gage the direction of arrival of incoming signals, and to maximize the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR). An array antenna is usually made up of more than one dipole but it may be composed of driven elements. As these antennas elements radiate individually and while in array, the radiation of all the elements sum up, to form the radiation beam, which has high gain, high directivity and better performance, with minimum losses. Similar to the dipole, a driven element can function as a transmitter or a receiver. When connected to the transmission line, a driven element gets power directly from the transmitter or, as a receiver, transfers the received energy directly to the receiver. Applications of array antennas include satellite communications, wireless communications, radar communications, and in the astronomical study.

Types of Arrays

Arrays can be described by their radiation patterns and the types of elements in the system. When placed close enough to the driven element to permit coupling, a parasitic element will produce the maximum transmission radiation from its associated driver. When a parasitic element reinforces power from the driver, it is referred to as a director. When a parasitic element causes maximum energy to radiate towards the driven element, the element is called a reflector. An array antenna is known as a driven or connected when all of the elements in an array are driven. Interestingly, if one or more elements in the array are parasitic, the entire system is said to be a parasitic array. Multi-element arrays are usually associated with their directivity, for example, a bidirectional array radiating in opposite directions or a unidirectional array radiating in one direction.

Driven arrays

Collinear array

Unidirectional, high-gain antennas designed with two or more half-wave dipoles placed end to end and seated on a common line or axis making them parallel or collinear. The main purpose of this array is to increase the power radiated and to provide high directional beam by avoiding power loss in other directions. Advantages of collinear array antennas include increasing directivity with a reduction in power losses.

Broadside array

Bidirectional array used to radiate electromagnetic waves in specific direction to enhance transmission. The design elements include two or more half-wave dipoles of equal size and equally spaced along a straight line or axis forming collinear points with all dipoles in the same phase from the same source. The broadside array antenna has a radiation pattern that is perpendicular to the axis with a narrow beam radiation pattern and high gain.

End-fire array

Similar to the broadside array and uses two half-wave dipoles spaced one-half wavelength apart with a bidirectional radiation pattern with narrower beam widths, lower gain, and higher directivity than the broadside array. The direction of radiation is along the plane of the array and perpendicular to the elements which radiates to the end of the array, hence the name.

Parasitic arrays

 Yagi-Uda array

The most common type of antenna for home TV reception with high gain and directivity. In this antenna, several directors are positioned to increase the directivity of the antenna. The disadvantages of Yagi-Uda antennas are that they can be prone to noise and atmospheric effects.

Log-periodic array

An array antenna whose impedance is a logarithmically periodic function of frequency. Similar to a Yagi-Uda, the advantage of this antenna is that it maintains constant characteristics over a desired frequency range of operation with the same radiation resistance, SWR, and gain and front-to-back ratio are also the same. Types of log-periodic antennas include the planar, trapezoidal, zig-zag, V-type, slot and the dipole or LPDA (log-periodic dipole array).

Turnstile array

Basic construction is two identical half-wave dipoles placed at right angles to each other and fed inphase. Several turnstiles can be stacked along a vertical axis for higher gain called a bay. The polarization of the turnstile antenna depends on their mode of operation, Normal and axial, where in normal mode, the antenna radiates horizontally polarized waves perpendicular to its axis and in axial mode, the antenna radiates circularly polarized waves along its axis.

Super-turnstile array

Also known as the Batwing antenna, the dipole elements in turnstile are replaced by four flat sheets where 1 to 8 bays can be constructed on a single mast. The advantages of this design are high-gain and better directivity than the regular turnstile but with some power losses.

HSM1001A Frequency Synthesizer

HSM1001A Frequency Synthesizer by Holzworth Instrumentation

Courtesy of everything RF : HSM1001A Frequency Synthesizer by Holzworth Instrumentation

The HSM1001A from Holzworth Instrumentation is an RF synthesizer module that operates from 100 kHz to 1 GHz. It is a microwave CW source that is architected on a non-PLL based platform. The digital-analog hybrid design provides excellent phase noise performance and spurious response, which compliments the phase coherent nature of this digital-analog hybrid signal source.

The module can be controlled directly via the SPI bus, the Holzworth GUI, a preloaded lookup table, LabVIEW, MATLAB, C++, C#, etc. It has a switching speed of less than 6 microsec with phase memory and an onboard precision 100 MHz OCXO. The HSM1001A is ideal for electronics design, manufacturing test and OEM systems integration applications.

Product Details

    • Part Number : HSM1001A
    • Manufacturer : Holzworth Instrumentation
    • Description : 100 kHz to 1 GHz RF Synthesizer Module

General Parameters

    • Synthesizer Type : Tunable Frequency
    • Frequency : 0.25 to 1024 MHz
    • Bandwidth : 0.1 to 1000 MHz
    • Resolution : 0.01 dB
    • Step Size : 0.001 Hz
    • Output Power : -100 dBm to 13 dBm
    • Spurious : -70 dBc
    • Interface : USB/Computer Controlled
    • Supply Voltage : 25 V
    • Phase Noise : -134 dBc/Hz
    • Switching Speed : 6 – 300 us
    • VSWR : 1.15:1, 1.70:1
    • Impedance : 50 Ohms
    • Package Type : Module with Connector
    • Connector : SMA
    • Grade : Space
    • Operating Temperature : -40 to 75 Degree C
    • Note : Rise Time: <100 ns, Fall Time: <100 ns